First screening: ultrasound and blood chemistry
Pregnancy screening is a complex of studies. It includes ultrasound diagnostics (ultrasound) and a biochemical blood test. The first screening allows doctors to get detailed information about the health of…

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Why is folic acid needed for pregnant women?
There are a great many vitamins that the human body needs. An important element for health and development is folic acid (vitamin B9). It is she who is involved in…

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Split personality: myths and the truth about dissociative identity disorder
Dissociative identity disorder (previously multiple personality disorder) - a violation in which there is a split personality into two or more "I". For this reason, the term “split personality” cannot…

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heating element

The norm of blood sugar. How to take an analysis: before or after a meal

When we talk about blood sugar, we mean the amount of glucose. It is glucose that provides the body with energy. Its volume is influenced by hormonal balance, lifestyle and diet. Several hormones are responsible for increasing glucose levels – glucagon, adrenaline, glucocorticoids and many others. However, only insulin provides a reduction in the amount of sugar.

We often think about glucose control only when the first symptoms of deviations appear. It is wiser to have a blood test for sugar at least once every six months. In this case, you can be sure that the development of any disease will be noticed in a timely manner.

Blood sugar: normal and deviations

Sugar level must be measured on an empty stomach, the results are calculated in millimoles per liter. Before meals, the norm of blood sugar is 3.3 – 5.5 mmol / L. After eating, a small jump can be observed. However, within the next 3-4 hours, glucose should stabilize. Continue reading

Biologists have studied the way death of cells with damaged DNA

Employees of the Faculty of Fundamental Medicine of Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov investigated the effect of genotoxic stress on the stability of the genome, as well as various methods of eliminating defective cells. This condition occurs due to a variety of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, and the article was published in the prestigious scientific journal Oncogene. Research will help improve cancer treatments.

Ensuring the stability of the genome is necessary for the normal functioning of the cell. Errors in the replication (doubling) of DNA, as well as a variety of external factors: ultraviolet radiation, chemicals, etc., can violate this stability. The very structure of the hereditary material changes in this case – this is called genotoxic stress. It is fraught with the development of cancer and other dangerous diseases. Continue reading

Human cells used to determine carcinogenicity of substances.

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have come up with a new screening method that is faster, easier and more accurate than existing tests, can determine if a particular substance can cause cancer. An article by scientists was published in the journal Nucleic Acids Research.

At present, according to researchers, about 80 thousand chemicals are used in industry. For the vast majority of them, there is very little or no information about carcinogenicity — the ability to cause cancer. Continue reading

Obesity in a child: causes, symptoms, treatment
Whether your child is obese or overweight is visually difficult to figure out. If the problem is already visible to the eye, then this indicates a significant increase in body…

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Created material that excludes tissue rejection during transplantation
Scientists from Russia and the United States have proposed new material for regenerative medicine. The compounds in the composition of this material literally “turn off” the work of enzymes that…

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Uterine fibroids, symptoms, treatment and pregnancy with a benign tumor
Myoma is a benign tumor in the muscle or connective tissue of the uterus that occurs in every fifth woman after 30 years. What triggers the development of fibroids, what…

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Teeth don't wait, like people don't be late
We are always waiting for something or someone. We are waiting for the tooth fairy to arrive, who will wave the wand and the child’s teeth will stop hurting. Well,…

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