Estrogens. Why can the “most female” hormones be raised or lowered?
Estrogens are the most female hormones, although men also have them. In fact, this is not one hormone, but the collective name of sex hormones that are similar in characteristics.…

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What blood type will the child have? Define correctly
Inheritance of a certain blood group is strictly logical. And to determine it before birth is quite possible. For this, the maternal and papal GC must be known, as well…

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Blood test for vitamin D. Table with the norms of indicators in women
Have you ever heard recommendations from a doctor to get tested for vitamin D? After all, its effect on the body is difficult to overestimate. Almost every person takes a…

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heating element

The norm of blood sugar. How to take an analysis: before or after a meal

When we talk about blood sugar, we mean the amount of glucose. It is glucose that provides the body with energy. Its volume is influenced by hormonal balance, lifestyle and diet. Several hormones are responsible for increasing glucose levels – glucagon, adrenaline, glucocorticoids and many others. However, only insulin provides a reduction in the amount of sugar.

We often think about glucose control only when the first symptoms of deviations appear. It is wiser to have a blood test for sugar at least once every six months. In this case, you can be sure that the development of any disease will be noticed in a timely manner.

Blood sugar: normal and deviations

Sugar level must be measured on an empty stomach, the results are calculated in millimoles per liter. Before meals, the norm of blood sugar is 3.3 – 5.5 mmol / L. After eating, a small jump can be observed. However, within the next 3-4 hours, glucose should stabilize. Continue reading

Biologists have studied the way death of cells with damaged DNA

Employees of the Faculty of Fundamental Medicine of Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov investigated the effect of genotoxic stress on the stability of the genome, as well as various methods of eliminating defective cells. This condition occurs due to a variety of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, and the article was published in the prestigious scientific journal Oncogene. Research will help improve cancer treatments.

Ensuring the stability of the genome is necessary for the normal functioning of the cell. Errors in the replication (doubling) of DNA, as well as a variety of external factors: ultraviolet radiation, chemicals, etc., can violate this stability. The very structure of the hereditary material changes in this case – this is called genotoxic stress. It is fraught with the development of cancer and other dangerous diseases. Continue reading

Human cells used to determine carcinogenicity of substances.

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have come up with a new screening method that is faster, easier and more accurate than existing tests, can determine if a particular substance can cause cancer. An article by scientists was published in the journal Nucleic Acids Research.

At present, according to researchers, about 80 thousand chemicals are used in industry. For the vast majority of them, there is very little or no information about carcinogenicity — the ability to cause cancer. Continue reading

Thrush (candidiasis): symptoms, causes and treatment
Thrush (vaginal candidiasis) at least once faced most women. This fungal disease can cause genital discomfort. However, this infection does not always require treatment. What is “thrush”, how to determine…

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Panic attack: how to fight? Signs and treatment
Too intense bouts of fear are called "panic attack." This term refers to the state when panic is expressed in an external manifestation and in general well-being. It is accompanied…

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Fibrinogen, what is it and why can it be increased?
Fibrinogen is a protein that is an effective indicator of the rate of blood clot formation. A fibrinogen blood test is used to detect abnormalities that can lead to thrombosis.…

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The norm of blood sugar. How to take an analysis: before or after a meal
When we talk about blood sugar, we mean the amount of glucose. It is glucose that provides the body with energy. Its volume is influenced by hormonal balance, lifestyle and…

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