The norm of blood sugar. How to take an analysis: before or after a meal
When we talk about blood sugar, we mean the amount of glucose. It is glucose that provides the body with energy. Its volume is influenced by hormonal balance, lifestyle and diet. Several hormones are responsible for increasing glucose levels – glucagon, adrenaline, glucocorticoids and many others. However, only insulin provides a reduction in the amount of sugar.
We often think about glucose control only when the first symptoms of deviations appear. It is wiser to have a blood test for sugar at least once every six months. In this case, you can be sure that the development of any disease will be noticed in a timely manner.
Blood sugar: normal and deviations
Sugar level must be measured on an empty stomach, the results are calculated in millimoles per liter. Before meals, the norm of blood sugar is 3.3 – 5.5 mmol / L. After eating, a small jump can be observed. However, within the next 3-4 hours, glucose should stabilize.
The norm of blood sugar after eating is 7-8 mmol / L, in some cases it can reach 10 mmol / L.
However, there are certain changes in the coefficient, which depend on age. In babies up to a year, glucose is 2.8-4.4 mmol / L, then rises to 3.3-5.0 mmol / L. After reaching the age of five, the index reaches its normal “adult” state. In the future, changes in indicators can be observed only in old age. In people over 60, it is acceptable to have fluctuations in glucose up to 4.2-6.4 mmol / L.
There are several stages of deviation from the normal state:
Hypoglycemia: glucose less than 3.3 mmol / l;
Hyperglycemia: sugar level before meals reaches 5.6-6.6 mmol / l;
Diabetes mellitus: a critical abnormality, long-term and serious treatment.
There may be several reasons for the development of a disease. Let us consider in more detail each of the states.
A decrease in sugar level is the result of malnutrition, most likely not enough dense and wholesome food. Hypoglycemia can develop during uncontrolled diets, without maintaining the proper ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Especially if such “starvation” is accompanied by physical exertion. Also, smoking and frequent drinking of alcohol can lead to a decrease in glucose.
The main symptoms of hypoglycemia are:
Frequent psychological destabilization (anxiety, fear);
Constantly experiencing chills;
Numbness of arms and legs.
With the timely detection of the disease, it is easy to stop it by switching to a healthy lifestyle. It will be necessary to abandon bad habits, introduce more nutritious dishes into the diet. Decreasing glucose levels to critical parameters of 2.2 mmol / L can lead to hypoglycemic coma. After reaching the lower threshold, loss of consciousness or even paralysis of the brain occurs within a few minutes.
This is not diabetes mellitus, but already one of the steps to it. Deviation from the norm is small – 5.6-6.6 mmol / l. The most common cause of this condition is impaired insulin sensitivity. A sugar-lowering hormone is produced in the pancreas. This process occurs due to a sedentary lifestyle. Also, the cause can be complications of various liver diseases, metabolic disorders.
Usually, the external manifestations of the disease are easy to notice:
Feeling of dry mouth;
Skin rash, irritation.
You can prevent the development of diabetes by observing a moderate diet, playing sports. It is also necessary to consume a large amount of liquid.
Chronic disease associated with a lack of glucose uptake and insulin production. The disease requires constant monitoring of sugar levels – several measurements during the day. Also, the patient is prescribed a strict diet, insulin injections or sugar-lowering drugs. The main feature is that the disease is permanent, while there is a metabolic disorder throughout the body.
There are several stages of the course of the disease. It is necessary to adhere to the doctor’s recommendations in order to avoid pathological changes in the body. Diabetes can cause blood clots, liver dysfunction, loss of vision, and other complications.
The norm of blood sugar in women
In general, indicators of blood sugar in women do not differ from the standard 3.3-5.5 mmol /. However, in some situations, deviations that are not associated with the disease are observed. The reasons for such destabilization are hormonal imbalances.
During pregnancy, all processes in the body proceed in a special mode. Also, the level of glucose is subject to the influence of a hormonal surge. Stressful condition for the body causes increased production of adrenaline. Therefore, there is an increase in glucose up to 3.7-6.3 mmol / L. This deviation is the norm.