With an increase in population and an increase in the level of migration of the world’s population, the risk of major epidemics also increases. To prevent them, scientists around the world are working on ways to create highly effective vaccines that will simultaneously be more accessible for immunization. One way to achieve this is by adding an adjuvant to the vaccine. This is the name of a substance that enhances the immune response to an introduced antigen, that is, an “enemy” molecule against which the immune system will produce antibodies. Using this component, you can reduce the amount of the main active substance of the vaccine. Bacteriologists Alexander Yersen (the plague stick was named after him) and Emil Roux discovered this effect at the end of the 19th century. Continue reading
Employees of the Faculty of Fundamental Medicine of Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov investigated the effect of genotoxic stress on the stability of the genome, as well as various methods of eliminating defective cells. This condition occurs due to a variety of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, and the article was published in the prestigious scientific journal Oncogene. Research will help improve cancer treatments.
Ensuring the stability of the genome is necessary for the normal functioning of the cell. Errors in the replication (doubling) of DNA, as well as a variety of external factors: ultraviolet radiation, chemicals, etc., can violate this stability. The very structure of the hereditary material changes in this case – this is called genotoxic stress. It is fraught with the development of cancer and other dangerous diseases. Continue reading
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have come up with a new screening method that is faster, easier and more accurate than existing tests, can determine if a particular substance can cause cancer. An article by scientists was published in the journal Nucleic Acids Research.
At present, according to researchers, about 80 thousand chemicals are used in industry. For the vast majority of them, there is very little or no information about carcinogenicity — the ability to cause cancer. Continue reading
A tumor is a pathological process, which is a newly formed tissue in which, due to genetic changes, cellular regulation and, accordingly, functionality are disturbed. Tumors are divided into benign and malignant. Benign grows slowly, does not metastasize, it can be removed without problems. A malignant neoplasm, or cancer, is one of the leading causes of death in the world.
Scientists have discovered that different classes of human genes have different evolutionary ages. Evolutionarily new genes that are particularly active in tumor cells can be used as a marker for cancer. This can serve as a serious impetus for the development of cancer diagnostics. Continue reading
With the gradual tightening of anti-tobacco legislation in most developed countries, smokers and tobacco companies are increasingly reorienting themselves to electronic means of nicotine delivery and tobacco heating. Indicator.Ru figured out what disputes surround the new technology, what health effects its use may have, and how electronic cigarettes are still better than usual.
Since the first electronic cigarettes appeared on sale in China in 2004, their share in the market of smoking products has been increasing quite rapidly from year to year. According to data for 2018, more than 40 million people are regular users of such devices. Moreover, if the number of smokers on the planet began to decline gradually (now there are just over a billion), the number of vapers continues to grow. The largest markets for electronic cigarettes today in the United States and Great Britain, followed by Germany, France and China, and the total global market is estimated at an impressive $ 20 billion. Continue reading