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Some DNA reading methods skip whole pages
Re-testing of genetic tests from the three largest laboratories in the United States has shown that full-exom sequencing (reading only protein-coding genes) can miss large DNA fragments. Because of this,…

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Human cells used to determine carcinogenicity of substances.
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have come up with a new screening method that is faster, easier and more accurate than existing tests, can determine if a particular…

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Chronic tonsillitis: symptoms and treatment of the disease
Chronic tonsillitis (CT) is common after a recent sore throat. It can also provoke any other infectious disease in which inflammation of the throat mucosa has been observed. Often people…

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Decoding of the general blood test and norm in adults. Reasons for deviations

A complete blood count (KLA) is prescribed for almost any disease. Thanks to the data obtained, the specialist can make an accurate diagnosis. But sometimes, I want to understand what is happening in my own body myself. For the most curious, the article has a transcript of a general blood test. You will also find a table with adult rates. We understand the causes of deviations, why there are indicators of increased or decreased. The main thing is not to worry ahead of time. Different factors influence the parameters, and a number of relationships should be considered.

Blood sampling is taken from a finger (usually anonymous) or a vein. Today, the procedure is carried out using a scarifier, and the measurement is performed by an automatic analyzer. Previously, if it was not possible to take blood from a finger, then they took it from the earlobe. The delivery of the KLA is carried out strictly on an empty stomach. Previously, you can not smoke and drink alcohol. In the evening, you can eat any food, salty or sweet, this will not affect the general blood test. The main condition is not to eat in the morning. Physical activity is also desirable to postpone. Since you should not have breakfast, sports can negatively affect your well-being. Deviations in the indicators will not be critical, but this can complicate the vision of the clinical picture. Continue reading

ESR: blood levels in women, why increased or decreased

Any pathology or dysfunction in the body is reflected in a change in the composition of the blood. That is why a blood test is one of the first patient examinations. One of the analyzes is the biological measurement of ESR.

ESR is an indicator of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The specific gravity of red blood cells is higher than that of plasma. If capillary or venous blood is mixed with anti-clotting drugs, after a while a maroon clot forms at the bottom of the tube.

Red blood cells have a high ability to clump, and the resulting complexes settle faster. Pathological processes in the body can affect “stickiness”, and a blood test shows deviations from the ESR norm.

ESR analysis algorithm

The reliability of the results of a biological study depends on how prepared the patient was for the procedure. Continue reading

Estrogens. Why can the “most female” hormones be raised or lowered?

Estrogens are the most female hormones, although men also have them. In fact, this is not one hormone, but the collective name of sex hormones that are similar in characteristics. First of all, speaking about estrogens, a three is distinguished: estradiol, estriol and estrone. They are produced by the ovaries (testicles in men), adrenal glands, adipose tissue, skin and other tissues. Interestingly, in order to get a “female” estrogen, you need a male hormone – testosterone. This “conversion” is possible due to the work of the aromatase enzyme. To make it easier to imagine how this happens, then imagine the route of the hormonal “train”. It starts moving from the testosterone station, moving to the next estrone, then estradiol, and the final stop is estriol.

An elegant and charming estrogenic Eva is created from the testosterone rib of Adam.

Female hormones

So, get to know better with female hormones. Continue reading

Blood test for vitamin D. Table with the norms of indicators in women

Have you ever heard recommendations from a doctor to get tested for vitamin D? After all, its effect on the body is difficult to overestimate. Almost every person takes a general blood or urine test once a year to determine the presence of a disease. Tests for the content of a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals in the body, in particular an analysis for vitamin D, are not “popular”. And completely in vain.

Most often, people who:

Lead not too active way of life;
Few play sports;
Rarely are in the fresh air;
Smoke or abuse alcohol;
Defectively eat.
The point of nutrition includes both the desire to limit oneself in food, and excessive consumption of food. The absence of micronutrients in the body manifests itself in hair loss, brittle nails, dry skin, depressed mood, and chronic fatigue. Continue reading

The norm of blood sugar. How to take an analysis: before or after a meal

When we talk about blood sugar, we mean the amount of glucose. It is glucose that provides the body with energy. Its volume is influenced by hormonal balance, lifestyle and diet. Several hormones are responsible for increasing glucose levels – glucagon, adrenaline, glucocorticoids and many others. However, only insulin provides a reduction in the amount of sugar.

We often think about glucose control only when the first symptoms of deviations appear. It is wiser to have a blood test for sugar at least once every six months. In this case, you can be sure that the development of any disease will be noticed in a timely manner.

Blood sugar: normal and deviations

Sugar level must be measured on an empty stomach, the results are calculated in millimoles per liter. Before meals, the norm of blood sugar is 3.3 – 5.5 mmol / L. After eating, a small jump can be observed. However, within the next 3-4 hours, glucose should stabilize. Continue reading

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A tumor is a pathological process, which is a newly formed tissue in which, due to genetic changes, cellular regulation and, accordingly, functionality are disturbed. Tumors are divided into benign…


Parental eating habits can lead to obesity in the newborn
Did you know that nutrition determines what your grandchildren will be like? I am convinced that human nutritional behavior is important at any stage of his life. What kind of…


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Thyroid hormones and which tests to take
In this article we will talk about thyroid hormones. I am often approached with problems: “I have very dry skin”, “Why can my hair roll like this?”, “Why are there…